ChIP-seq is a method of analyzing the interaction of protein-DNA complexes. This approach is used to profile histone modifications, transcription factors, and other DNA-related proteins. ChIP-Seq analysis uses chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) and next-generation high-throughput sequencing (NGS).
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16S analysis is widely used to identify microorganisms - bacteria, archaea - and to search for phylogenetic relationships between them. It involves the amplification and sequencing of the 16S gene, characterized by a high polymorphism between different species of these microorganisms. The 16S gene is divided into several regions: V1 to V9, whose amplification occurs due to universal primers. The amplification of two 16S regions (e.g. V3V4) is sufficient to identify most bacteria, however, the longer the fragment is amplified, the easier it is to distinguish microorganisms with a high degree of similarity. This is especially important for bacterial identification up to the species taxonomic level.
An exome is a set of all coding sequences in the genome. It is responsible for the production of proteins and constitutes 1.1% of the human genome sequence. Exome sequencing is a viable alternative to whole genome sequencing as it targets only the protein coding regions responsible for most known disease-related variants. Whole exome sequencing is a high quality, affordable and convenient solution for researching complex and rare diseases, cancer research or the human population studies.
Designing primers is the first stage of many genetical and biological experiments. Primers are short oligonucleotide sequences that bind to the genomic sequence under PCR conditions. Well designed allow identification of genetic mutations or genomic fragments. The template, i.e. the identifiable sequence, can be any organism whose reference sequence is known and described in databases. Primers are commonly used in human genetic diagnostics, but they are equally often used to identify differences between species of different organisms.